This yr, 2023, is the heralded third yr of the presidential election cycle. It has kicked off with nervous markets eyeing political drama in Washington, DC: contentious votes to elect the Speaker of the Home of Representatives, a combative State of the Union presidential deal with, partisan threats to not increase the nation’s debt ceiling, and posturing and positioning by lawmakers forward of the 2024 election. However, in keeping with presidential election cycle concept, which was first referenced within the Inventory Dealer’s Almanac, this third yr of the four-year cycle ought to generate well-above-average inventory returns.
So, what are the strengths, limitations, and nuances of presidential election cycle concept and what does the present political context foretell relating to whether or not 2023 will observe the expected development?
The traditional election cycle concept narrative, and why it augurs so nicely for 2023, goes as follows: “Presidents do the heavy lifting of their first and second yr in workplace after which pivot to getting ready for reelection within the fourth yr by being pleasant to markets within the third yr.” Although the info round this can be compelling, the general narrative warrants some refinement.
The Presidential Election Cycle and S&P 500 Returns
Since 1928, the third yr of the presidential cycle has produced optimistic S&P 500 returns 78% of the time, producing 13.5% common returns vs. an all-year common of seven.7%. We didn’t discover different coincident indicators within the financial and financial coverage indicators — rising vs. falling price environments, for instance — which may additionally supply insights on 2023, however we do imagine a celebration’s diploma of presidency management could also be a vital issue. A single social gathering held the “trifecta” of the presidency and Home and Senate majorities two-thirds of the time within the first and second years of the cycle, because the Democrats did in 2021 and 2022, however solely about one-third of the time within the third and fourth years.
It is a acquainted phenomenon in US politics: The president’s social gathering typically faces setbacks within the midterm elections. However it additionally implies that the related election cycle could also be congressional reasonably than presidential. Markets could merely be rewarding gridlock. Third years that adopted a change from unified to separate authorities averaged 15.0% returns in comparison with 10.7% for third years during which the trifecta was preserved. The gridlock query appears essential given the seemingly distinction between 2022’s bold legislative agenda and nervousness about potential impasse in 2023.
The sequence additionally could also be essential in anticipating how presidential election cycle concept will play out in 2023. With their glass-half-full outlook, commentators are likely to deal with above-average returns within the third yr and pay much less consideration to below-average returns within the second. Second years have accounted for greater than one-third of the S&P 500’s complete unfavourable return years since 1928 and a good greater proportion of years with materially unfavourable returns, or these like 2022, with worse than –10% efficiency. The rebound sample from bearish second to bullish third years is the important thing sequencing characteristic. Two down years in a row have solely occurred eight instances since 1928, and solely as soon as, in 1930 and 1931, through the Nice Despair, did it occur within the second-to-third-year sequence. So, the second-to-third-year sign could also be particularly highly effective and predictive following such a dark 2022.
As such, all of the main indicators of presidential election cycle concept — third yr, cut up authorities, and dismal second yr — would appear to augur nicely for 2023. However are there any present situations which may inhibit this predicted energy? Put merely, whereas the markets could reply nicely to gridlock, a whole breakdown in authorities functioning could also be a bridge too far.
Whereas fiscal restraint in 2023 after the sizable authorities largesse of 2022 might have its advantages, complete authorities paralysis and dysfunction — not elevating the debt ceiling and never funding the federal government –could also be an excessive amount of for the markets and economic system to bear.
In fact, debt ceiling debates are nothing new in US politics and have but to result in disaster. However simply because they haven’t doesn’t imply that they gained’t. So, is that this time totally different? Whether it is, a specific congressional cohort may very well be the brink purpose.
Within the tightly divided Home of Representatives with its slim Republican majority, the Home Freedom Caucus wields appreciable affect and might impede laws within the curiosity of each diminishing the scope of presidency and decreasing spending. These efforts also can have a performative component that helps caucus members increase their profiles and marketing campaign funds and in any other case construct their manufacturers. This latter element could also be what most differentiates 2023 from earlier third years within the presidential election cycle.
In 2023, as in 2011 and 2013, political drama’s path to financial significance runs squarely by the debt ceiling and federal funds negotiations. The Home Freedom Caucus has positioned itself as a key energy base in that regard and extracted appreciable concessions through the efforts to elect Rep. Kevin McCarthy as Speaker of the Home. Among the many extra important of those had been securing the single-member movement to vacate and gaining a number of of the 9 Republican seats on the 13-seat Guidelines Committee. These represent an efficient blocking place, or a veto, that may make it very tough to move any laws to lift the debt ceiling with out the group’s settlement or acquiescence.
There are few examples in latest political historical past of comparable teams gaining such affect. The distinction right here is simply how performative congressional politics at present have develop into. Amid the rise of social media and a bunch of different politically centrifugal forces, the brink for differentiation has moved ever greater, particularly amid the 2020 election’s lead-up and aftermath.
To know simply how this performative energy could have develop into the differentiating issue on this presidential cycle’s third yr, it helps to conduct a recall experiment. Consider 10 members of Congress. What number of of them do you keep in mind for his or her accomplishments? What number of do you keep in mind for his or her transgressions, obstructions, or theatrics? This explains the danger that profitable (not simply threatened) confrontations and disruptions can develop into self-reinforcing phenomena. Or, in an ever-escalating high-stakes recreation of hen, what occurs if neither facet blinks?
There’s a counter to all this, in fact, and it’s the primary purpose why 2023 could observe expectations and ship robust returns. The debt ceiling drama is simply that, drama — efficiency as friction however with out the chance of inflicting any lasting harm. The markets could endure some scary moments, however america will ultimately pay its payments. When flying, turbulence isn’t any enjoyable, however the airplane will nonetheless land safely.
A number of potential steps might assist keep away from a debt-ceiling deadlock. We anticipate to listen to extra concerning the idea of a “discharge petition” and foresee an eventual suspension, although maybe not an specific debt-ceiling enhance, as a market-acceptable conclusion. The volatility alongside the way in which could seize headlines, however there may be the underlying and customarily stabilizing pressure of getting a coiled spring of 2022 fiscal packages handed in 2022 — the Infrastructure Invoice, the CHIPS Act, and the Inflation Discount Act, or “Construct Again Higher.” For every of those packages, 2022 could have been the metaphorical structure part whereas 2023 kicks off the constructing part, which, all else being equal, ought to enhance nominal exercise, jobs, and expenditure.
The heuristics of the Inventory Dealer’s Almanac thus present some essential insights. Nonetheless, the dangers alongside the way in which could peak within the lead-up to the fiscal funding deadline in late September, assuming the so-called extraordinary measures to forestall a debt ceiling breach might be prolonged that far. Thus, it might pay to heed one other such heuristic — beware the early fall.
For extra on this subject, hearken to Michael Edwards’s podcast on the presidential election cycle concept in 2023.
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All posts are the opinion of the writer. As such, they shouldn’t be construed as funding recommendation, nor do the opinions expressed essentially replicate the views of CFA Institute or the writer’s employer.
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